旅順大屠殺

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一份西方報紙登載日軍殘害中國人的素描。 [1]

旅順大屠殺是一场发生于1894年11月21日中日甲午戰爭期間,日军中國旅顺进行的大屠杀。在独眼将军日军第2軍第1師團山地元治師團長的指挥下,第1师團下的伊瀬知好成日语伊瀬知好成聯隊長率領的步兵第2聯隊,連同河野通好聯隊長率領的步兵第15聯隊日语歩兵第15連隊第3大隊等一些部队在旅顺屠杀了约2,000人至20,000人的军人和平民。[2]首先報導大屠殺的是《紐約世界報》記者詹姆斯·克里曼英语James Creelman,他的報導後來廣受批評為誇大煽情,如他報導6萬人被屠殺[3],但当时旅顺平民只有6,000人,清军在添兵後也只有2萬人[4][5],克里爾曼描述日軍屠杀的具體死亡數字受到質疑[6][7][8]

背景[编辑]

旅顺位于中国辽东半岛最南端,与威海卫隔海相望,共扼渤海门户,是北洋水師重镇。1894年11月,日軍攻陷旅顺,對撤退至市內的清兵連續四天進行掃蕩。掃蕩過程事後經由市內的一間紅十字會醫院,英國人詹姆斯·艾倫、美國人克里曼、英國法學家胡蘭德英语Thomas Erskine Holland、英國《泰晤士报》和美國的《紐約世界报英语New York World》等相繼記載報導。[9][10]

依據宗澤亞所著《清日戰爭》,旅順大屠殺起因有二:「其一,自日清戰爭開戰以來,日本國內報導日清戰事一直是連戰連勝、各戰大捷、清軍不堪一擊,誇耀日軍所向披靡的戰果。可是11月18日旅順口週邊土城子戰鬥,日軍遭遇到了預想不到的挫折,重創了第一師團長山地將軍的自尊心,山地將軍因此惱羞成怒。」;「其二,19日雙台溝附近,山地師團長接到報告:『我騎兵偵察兵約20名在土城子被清兵俘虜,偵查隊長中萬德次中尉和隨同士兵,首級被清軍砍下並斷肢割除睾丸。』還親眼看到衛生兵擔架上,被虐殺後肢體殘缺不全的士兵屍體。清軍的野蠻之舉再次激起山地復仇的怒火,在日軍攻入旅順口時,下達了『除婦女老幼之外,一律格殺勿論』的命令。在強烈復仇心的驅使下,日軍開始瘋狂的報復行動。在街市內搜索發現,逃亡的清兵換裝改扮成當地住民混雜在百姓中間難以辨認,躲藏在民家的清兵繼續開槍負隅頑抗。司令部接到報告後隨即下達第二道命令:『凡穿著平民服裝,疑為清兵的青壯年者一律誅殺。』之後旅順的大街小巷到處是殺人的現場,不論清兵與否皆視為清兵,百姓中老幼婦女也成為虐殺的對象。」[11]

英国船員詹姆斯·艾倫自稱随美国货轮哥倫比亞号(Columbia)赴华为正在同日本作战的清军运送军火。在旅顺大屠杀期间,他被困于旅顺口。他的著作《在龍旗下——中日戰爭目擊記》描述了戰前他沿途看到日軍士兵被虐殺後肢體殘缺不全的屍體。[12]但是該書的真實性遭《字林西報》、Japan Weekly Mail、《士蔑報》質疑,認為他並非目擊者,書中的人名、船名都對不上號。[13][14][15]

清兵死者葬於白玉山東麓的安葬崗,今稱「万忠墓」。

事件[编辑]

日本摄影师龟井兹明日语亀井茲明拍摄的旅顺大屠杀

1894年11月21日,日軍攻佔“东亚第一堡壘”的旅順後,對逃竄到市內各處的清兵進行了四天三夜的掃蕩行動,根据英国《旗幟日報英语London Evening Standard》战地记者维利尔斯英语Frederic Villiers的報導,短短四天市內就有兩萬人遇害,只有埋屍的36名華人倖免於難,而這36人的帽子上還寫著「此人不可殺戮」的標記[16]

在現場的美軍觀察者奧布萊恩中尉說,被殺戮的包括俘虜和平民,並且還看到了斷肢,但他又說道:「在那種情況下,很多軍隊都會如此,我們也不能指望在日軍身上會發生奇蹟。」[17]當時美國報紙亦跟進報導並描述:「日本為蒙著文明皮膚,具野蠻筋骨之怪獸。」,「日本今天已经摘下了文明的假面具,暴露了野蛮的真面目。」[18]

據《旅大史話》記載,屍體運了一個月才抬完,花溝張家窯堆積兩萬多具屍體,形成一座屍山。日軍下令澆油點火,燒了十幾天才燒完。燒成骨灰後,草草裝了四口大棺材,埋在白玉山東麓的安葬崗[19]

记录[编辑]

英國人詹姆斯·艾倫(James Allan)在他的著作《在龍旗下——中日戰爭目擊記》中寫道:「在我周围都是狂奔的难民。我第一次亲眼看见日本兵追逐逃难的百姓,用枪杆和刺刀对付所有的人,对跌倒的人更是凶狠地乱刺。」[20]日军击毙所有遇见的人,在街道上行走,脚下到处踩着死尸。天已经黑了,「屠杀还在继续进行着,丝亳没有停息的迹象。枪声、呼喊声、尖厉的叫声和呻吟的声音,到处回荡。街道上呈现出一幅可怕的景象:地上浸透了血水,遍地躺卧着肢体残缺的尸体,有些小胡同简直被死尸堵住了,死者大都是城里人。」[21]艾伦又写道:“我站在一处高地,离我不远处有一个池塘,池塘边站着好多日本兵,拼命将一群难民往池塘赶,不一会池塘裡便塞满了人。只见难民在水里乱成一片,池塘边的日本兵,有的拿枪射击,有的用枪上的刺刀刺。池塘裡断头的,斩腰的,穿胸的,破腹的,搅成一团,水变成通红一片。日本兵在一旁欢笑狂喊,快活得不得了。池塘裡少数活人,在死尸上爬来爬去,满身血污。其中一个女人,抱着一个小孩子,浮出水面,朝日本兵发出凄婉的哀求。岸边的日本兵竟拿刺刀来捅,当胸捅了个对穿。第二下又捅那个孩子,只见刺刀一捅,小孩子被捅到刺刀上,他高高的挑起枪来,摇了几摇,当作玩耍的东西。那女人伏在地下,尚未捅死,用奄奄一息的力气,想要起来看看那个孩子,刚挣扎了一下,又趴下了。日本兵就照屠杀别人的方法,也将这个女人斩成几段。”[22]

紐約世界報》記者詹姆斯·克里曼英语James Creelman写道:“我經過各街,到處見屍體均殘毀如野獸所嚙。被殺之店舖生意人,堆積疊在道旁,眼中之淚,傷痕之血,都已冰結成塊。甚至有知靈性之犬狗,見主人屍首之僵硬,不禁悲鳴于側,其慘可知矣……”[23]

此事件对日本社会也引起极大反响,《自由新闻》发文称《旅顺陷落的大捷报已化为万钧之雷砸向吾人头顶》,美国驻日公使英语List of ambassadors of the United States to Japan谭恩英语Edwin Dun陸奧宗光说:“如果此时日本政府不采取一定的善后措施,那么迄今日本获得的名誉将完全毁掉。”随后,俄国驻日公使英语List of ambassadors of Russia to Japan希特罗渥俄语Хитрово, Михаил Александрович亦面晤陆奥,谈及旅顺口屠杀事件时,“虽所言与美国公使略同,然其口气冷淡,令人可怕”。陆奥不敢怠慢,急电伊藤博文说:“此等事实如最终不能否定,应有一定善后之考虑。”[24]之後由陸奧宗光亲自去美国发布声明,大意为所杀的都是脱掉军服的逃跑清军,屠杀是对之前土城子战斗中被杀的日军俘虏的报复行为,在旅顺被俘的清军355人现在在日本受到很良好的对待等。并且收买媒体如中央通讯社,对率先进行报道事件的《时代周刊》进行攻击。之後給各國駐日公使發去辩解书,通知他们说:“关于占领旅顺口之际所发生的事实,因来自误传而毁坏我军之声誉,且使外国人往往怀有不快之感,对我甚为不利。为此而起草了关于上述误传之辩解书。”[25]但隨軍採訪的兩名西方記者都認同有屠殺發生,一個是《紐約世界報》的克里曼,他的數字是2000平民遇害,[23]另一個報道兩萬人被殺的维利尔斯則是《倫敦新聞畫報》的戰地記者。

日兵的证言[编辑]

  • 日军步兵第2联队第2大队第5中队上等兵加部东常七《日清战役从军手记》记录:“本联队占领黄金山炮台之后,闯入市街在各家各户搜索,昏暗中遇见清人就毫不留情砍杀。小队在街区搜索前进,忽然在民家暗处发现一敌兵,我大喝一声,此人一瞬惊呆,刺刀就深深捅进对方的胸膛,他痛苦地紧紧握住枪剑,我用力拔出刺刀,那紧握枪剑的四指被刀刃割断,身体向一侧倾斜,再补一刺便魂飞魄散。”[3]

影响[编辑]

2001年艾勒曼(Elleman)总结道:“由於旅順屠殺產生了很大的轟動效應,哪怕是以聳人聽聞的方式獲得的,卻在各國中產生了同情中國的傾向,這也使得日本放棄了很多苦戰得來的東西,特別是遼東半島。”[26]

參見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Trumbull White. The War in the East: Japan, China, and Corea. A Complete History of the War. P. W. Ziegler & Company. 1895年: 599頁. 
  2. ^ 英冒险家记录甲午旅顺大屠杀:女人被斩成几段. 环球网. 2014年4月1日. (原始内容存档于2014-04-25). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Stewart Lone. Japan's First Modern War: Army and Society in the Conflict with China, 1894-5. Palgrave Macmillan UK. 1994-08-30: 155–156頁. ISBN 978-0-230-38975-5. 
  4. ^ James Allan. Under the Dragon Flag: My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War. W. Heinemann. 1898年: 41頁. 
  5. ^ Henry Davenport Northrop. The Flowery Kingdom and the Land of the Mikado Or China, Japan and Corea: Containing Their Complete History Down to the Present Time; Manners, Customs and Peculiarities of the People; Superstitions; Idol Worship; Industries; Natural Scenery, Etc., Etc., Together with a Graphic Account of the War Between China and Japan, Its Causes, Land and Naval Battles, Etc., Etc. Elliott Publishing Company. 1894年: 582頁. 
  6. ^ W. Joseph Campbell. Getting It Wrong: Debunking the Greatest Myths in American Journalism. University of California Press. 18 October 2016: 22–23. ISBN 978-0-520-29129-4. 
  7. ^ The Port Arthur Outrages. New-York Tribune (New York). December 20, 1894: 6 –通过Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Library of Congress. 
  8. ^ Daniel Kane. Each of Us in His Own Way: Factors Behind Conflicting Accounts of the Massacre at Port Arthur: 23. 10 Jun 2019. doi:10.1080/00947679.2005.12062669. 
  9. ^ 袁村平. 觉醒的国殇:甲午战争120年祭. 2014-07-01: 90. ISBN 978-7-210-06382-7. 
  10. ^ Sir Thomas Erskine Holland. Studies in International Law. Clarendon Press. 1898年: 116, 118. 
  11. ^ 《清日战争》在线阅读(19). 读书频道_齐鲁网. 
  12. ^ James Allan. Under the Dragon Flag: My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War. London: W. Heinemann. 1898年: 66–67頁 (英语). The Chinese took some prisoners, whom they slew mercilessly, and one of the first things I saw on the morning of the 19th was a pair of corpses suspended by the feet from the branches of a huge camphor tree near the parade-ground. They were hideously mutilated. They had been disembowelled; the eyes were gouged out, the throat cut, and the right hand severed. They were perfectly naked, and groups of children were pelting them with mud and stones....The bodies of the Japanese soldiers killed in encounters with the enemy as they closed on the place, were often found minus the head or right hand, sometimes both, besides being ferociously gashed and slashed. Corpses were still hanging on the trees when the fortress fell, and it is not surprising that their former comrades should have been maddened by the sight, though of course the officers are greatly to blame for permitting the fearful retaliation which ensued to be carried to such lengths.  該書中譯本為詹姆斯·艾伦. 《在龍旗下——中日戰爭目擊記》. 费青/费孝通译. 上海人民出版社. 2014年. ISBN 978-7-208-12493-6. 
  13. ^ Under the Dragon Flag. North China Herald. May 16, 1898. Under the Dragon Flag is very nicely printed, and bound in green cloth with the dragon flag on the cover ; but there are so many inaccuracies and impossibilities in the account, that the author is certainly not relating what he actually saw. His dates do not tally with the facts, which he may perhaps say is so much the worse for the facts ; and when he tells us, as he does on page 30, that from an elevated point on the rocky coast of "the Liaotung" he had, with the aid of powerful glasses, a good view of the battle of the Yalu, he presumes too much on our credulity... 
  14. ^ Under the Dragon Flag. Japan Weekly Mail. March 5, 1898: 228, 233. 
  15. ^ Under the Dragon Flag. Japan Weekly Mail. March 19, 1898: 284, 293. 轉載《士蔑報》
  16. ^ Villiers, Frederic. The Truth About Port Arthur. The North American Review. Vol. 160 no. 460 (University of Northern Iowa). 1895年3月: 330頁. JSTOR 25103490 (英语). 
  17. ^ LIEUT. O'BRIEN RECALLED; The Army Officer Who Went to Japan to Observe the War. THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT PORT ARTHUR Lieut. O'Brien Saw Evidences of Cruelty on the Part of Both Japanese and Chinese Soldiers. [前往日本觀察戰爭的陸軍軍官奧布萊恩中尉回憶。關於旅順港的真相。奧布萊恩看到了中日雙方士兵殘酷的證據]. 紐約時報. 1895年7月8日. 需要付费订阅 (英语). 
  18. ^ 陳悦,西方人眼中的甲午战争,2014-04-20
  19. ^ 錢鋼,《大清海軍與李鴻章》,香港:中華書局,2004,188至190頁
  20. ^ James Allan. Under the Dragon Flag: My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War. London: W. Heinemann. 1898年: 77頁 (英语). There was a rush and hurry of fugitives all around me, and now for the first time I saw the Japanese soldiers in pursuit, pressing on the fleeing throng, and using rifle and bayonet furiously on all and sundry, stabbing and hacking fiendishly at those who fell. 
  21. ^ James Allan. Under the Dragon Flag: My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War. London: W. Heinemann. 1898年: 83–84頁 (英语). The butchery was proceeding without the least sign of abatement; shots, shouts, shrieks, and groans resounded on every side; the streets presented a fearful spectacle; the ground was saturated with blood, and everywhere strewn with horribly mutilated corpses; some of the narrower avenues were positively choked with carnage. The dead were mostly the townspeople; 
  22. ^ James Allan. Under the Dragon Flag: My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War. London: W. Heinemann. 1898年: 79–80頁 (英语). I have said that the land by which I had come out on the lake inclined steeply upwards, and the water was about fifteen feet below me when I arrived in sight of it. It was surrounded by crowds of Japanese soldiers, who had driven large numbers of the fugitives into the water, and were firing on them from every side, and driving back with the bayonet those who attempted to struggle out. The dead floated on the water, which was reddened with blood. The soldiers, yelling and laughing with vengeful glee, seemed to gloat over the agonies of their victims. It was fearful to see those gory forms struggling in the agitated water, those who still lived endeavouring to extricate themselves from the mass of corpses, falling fast, but often rising again with their last energies, streaming with water and blood, and uttering piteous cries and appeals for mercy, which were mocked by the fiends around them. Many women were amongst them; one I noticed carrying a little child, which, struggling forward, she held up to the soldiers as if in appeal. As she reached the bank, one of the wretches struck her through with his bayonet, and with a second stroke as she fell transfixed the child, which might have been two years old, and held its little body aloft. The woman rose and made a wild effort to regain the child, but evidently exhausted and dying, fell back again into the water. Her body—and in fact it was done with every body that came within reach—was hacked in pieces. 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 EXTRA. 2 O'CLOCK. - PORT ARTHUR MASSACRE. Two Thousand Men, Women and Children Butchered in the Streets. CARNIVAL OF SLAUGHTER. Japanese Soldiers Laughed at the Misery of Helpless Children and Women. GEN. OYAMA'S INDIFFERENCE. The Town Sacked from End to End and the Storekeepers Shot and Sabred.. New York World. 1894-12-20: 1,3. 
  24. ^ 《日本外交文书》第27卷,第941号
  25. ^ 《日本外交文书》第27卷,第943、945号
  26. ^ Bruce A. Elleman. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Taylor & Francis. 2001-02-22: 108頁. ISBN 978-0-203-97691-3.